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German is one of the Central European language which is sublime essential for any person who want to migrate over there through family Reunion visa .One who gets married he/she suppose to pass the A1 level to apply his/her family visa in German Embassy and the rest levels are applicable for study and other immigration plans.SOLP is leading for even low educated and over aged students to abstract their commanding results by applying exigent Dictology By course coordinator with the leadership of the Director.

Three different courses are available of DANISH,

fundamental language course = duration 3 months (Certificate)A1 Essential for family Reunion visa in Pakistan

professional language course = duration 6 months (Certificate)A2-B1 Essential for study

advanced language course = duration 1 year (Diploma)B2-C1-C2 essential for Immigration.

Unparalleled Information about German Language

German Deutsch is a West Germanic language. It derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.A number of words are derived from Latinand Greek, and fewer from French and English. Widely spoken languages which are most similar to German include Luxembourgish, Dutch, the Frisian languages, English and the Scandinavian languages.

German is written using the Latin alphabet. In addition to the 26 standard letters, German has three vowels with umlauts (Ä/ä, Ö/ö, and Ü/ü) and the letter ß (a special kind of "s(s)", called "Eszett" or "scharfes Es"; it originated as a ligature of archaic forms of the letters s and z, which were represented as ſ and >ʒ, respectively, that is, ſ + ʒ = ſʒ = ß).

German is spoken natively by about 100 million people, making it the most widely spoken native language in the European Union and one of the major languages of the world. German is a pluricentric language, with multiple countries having their own standardised variants (e.g.Austrian German, Swiss Standard German) as well as many dialects. There is also one variant referred to as Standard German.

German is the only official language of Germany, Austria, and Liechtenstein; one of the official languages ofSwitzerland, Luxembourg, and Belgium; and a recognised minor language in many other countries, such asItaly, Slovenia, Hungary, Namibia, and Poland.

When Martin Luther translated the Bible (the New Testament in 1522 and the Old Testament, published in parts and completed in 1534), he based his translation mainly on the bureaucratic standard language used in Saxony (sächsische Kanzleisprache), also known as Meißner-Deutsch (German from the city of Meissen). This language was based on Eastern Upper and Eastern Central German dialects and preserved much of the grammatical system of Middle High German (unlike the spoken German dialects in Central and Upper Germany, which had already at that time begun to lose the genitive case and the preterite tense).

Copies of the Bible featured a long list of glosses for each region that translated words unknown in the region into the regional dialect. Roman Catholics initially rejected Luther's translation and tried to create their own Catholic standard (gemeines Deutsch)—the difference in relation to "Protestant German" was only minor. It was not until the middle of the 18th century that a widely accepted standard was created, thus ending the period ofEarly New High German.

Until about 1800, standard German was mainly a written language: in urban northern Germany, the local dialects of Low Saxon or Low German were spoken; Standard German, which was markedly different, was often learned as a foreign language with uncertain pronunciation. Northern German pronunciation was considered the standard in prescriptive pronunciation guides; however, the actual pronunciation of Standard German varies from region to region.

Main article: Standard German

The national and regional standard varieties of the German language. Standard German originated not as a traditional dialect of a specific region, but as a written language. However, there are places where the traditional regional dialects have been replaced by new vernaculars based on standard German; this is the case in large stretches of Northern Germany, but also in major cities in other parts of the country. It is important to note, however, that this colloquial standard German differs greatly from the formal written language, especially in grammar and syntax, in which it has been influenced by dialectal speech.

Standard German differs regionally, between German-speaking countries, in vocabulary and some instances ofpronunciation, and even grammar and orthography. This variation must not be confused with the variation of local dialects. Even though the regional varieties of standard German are only to a certain degree influenced by the local dialects, they are very distinct. German is thus considered a pluricentric language.

In most regions, the speakers use a continuum from more dialectal varieties to more standard varieties according to circumstances.

In the German-speaking parts of Switzerland, mixtures of dialect and standard are very seldom used, and the use of standard German is largely restricted to the written language. This situation has been called a medial diglossia. Swiss Standard German is used in the Swiss education system, while Austrian Standard Germanis officially used in the Austrian education system. A mixture of dialect and standard also does not occur in Northern Germany. The traditional dialects there are Low German, while Standard German is a High German language. Because the dialects of this region are of a completely different language, they don't mesh with Standard German the way High German dialects (e.g. Bavarian, Swabian, Hessian) are able to.

Official status

Standard German is the only official language in Liechtenstein; it shares official status in Germany (with Danish, Frisian, Romany and Sorbian as minority languages), in Austria (with Slovene, Croatian, and Hungarian as minority languages), Switzerland (with French, Italian and Romansh), Belgium (with Dutch and French) and Luxembourg (with French and Luxembourgish). It is an official regional language in Italy (South Tyrol), as well as in the cities of Sopron (Hungary), Krahule (Slovakia) and several cities in Romania. It is the official language of command (together with Italian) of the Vatican Swiss Guard.

German has an officially recognized status as a regional or auxiliary language in Denmark (Southern Jutland region), Italy (Gressoney valley)Namibia, Poland (Opole region), and Russia(Asowo and Halbstadt).

German is one of the 23 official languages of the European Union and one of the three working languages. It is the language with the largest number of native speakers in the European Union and is the second-most spoken language in Europe, just behind English and ahead of French.

German as a foreign language

Main article: German as a foreign language

Knowledge of German as a foreign language (second language in Luxembourg) in the EU member states (+Turkey), in per cent of the adult population (+15), 2005.

German is the third most taught foreign language in the English-speaking world, after French and Spanish.

German is the main language of about 95 to 100 millionpeople in Europe (as of 2005), or 13.3% of all Europeans; it is the second most spoken native language in Europe after Russian, above French (66.5 million speakers in 2004) and English (64.2 million speakers in 2004). It is therefore the most spoken first language in the EU. It is the second most known foreign language in the EU. It is one of the official languages of the European Union, and one of the threeworking languages of the European Commission, along with English and French. Among citizens of the EU-15 countries, 32% say they can converse in German (either as a mother tongue or as a second or foreign language).This is assisted by the widespread availability of German TV by cable or satellite.

German was once, and still remains to some extent, a lingua franca in Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe.

Dialects

Main article: German dialects

Distribution of the native speakers of major continental West-Germanic dialectal varieties.

German is a member of the West Germanic language of the Germanic family of languages, which in turn is part of theIndo-European language family. The German dialect continuum is traditionally divided most broadly into High Germanand Low German, also called Low Saxon. Yet, historically, High German dialects and Low Saxon/Low German dialects do not belong to the same language. Nevertheless, in today's Germany, Low Saxon/Low German is often perceived as a dialectal variation of Standard German on a functional level, even by many native speakers. The same phenomenon is found in the eastern Netherlands, as the traditional dialects are not always identified with their Low Saxon/Low German origins, but with Dutch.

The variation among the German dialects is considerable, with often only neighbouring dialects being mutually intelligible. Some dialects are not intelligible to people who only know standard German. However, all German dialects belong to the dialect continuum of High German and Low Saxon languages.

Low German

Main article: Low German

Middle Low German was the lingua franca of the Hanseatic League. It was the predominant language in Northern Germany. This changed in the 16th century: in 1534 the Luther Bible was published. This translation is considered to be an important step towards the evolution of the Early New High German. It aimed to be understandable to a broad audience and was based mainly on Central and Upper German varieties. The Early New High German language gained more prestige than Low German and became the language of science and literature. Around the same time, the Hanseatic league, based around northern ports, lost its importance as new trade routes to Asia and the Americas were established, while the most powerful German states of that period were located in Middle and Southern Germany.

The 18th and 19th centuries were marked by mass education in Standard German in schools. Gradually Low German came to be politically viewed as a mere dialect spoken by the uneducated. Today Low Saxon can be divided in two groups: Low Saxon varieties with a reasonable standard German influx and varieties of Standard German with a Low Saxon influence known as Missingsch. Sometimes, Low Saxon and Low Franconian varieties are grouped together because both are unaffected by the High German consonant shift. However, the proportion of the population who can understand and speak it has decreased continuously since World War II.

High German

Main article: High German languages

High German is divided into Central German, High Franconian (a transitional dialect), and Upper German. Central German dialects include Ripuarian, Moselle Franconian, Rhine Franconian, Central Hessian, East Hessian, North Hessian, Thuringian, Silesian German, Lorraine Franconian, Mittelalemannisch, North Upper Saxon, High Prussian, Lausitzisch-Neumärkisch and Upper Saxon. It is spoken in the southeastern Netherlands, eastern Belgium, Luxembourg, parts of France, and parts of Germany roughly between the River Main and the southern edge of the Lowlands. Modern Standard German is mostly based on Central German, although the common (but not linguistically correct) German term for modern Standard German is Hochdeutsch, that is, High German.

The Moselle Franconian varieties spoken in Luxembourg have been officially standardised and institutionalised and are usually considered a separate language known as Luxembourgish.

The two High Franconian dialects are East Franconian and South Franconian.

Upper German dialects include Northern Austro-Bavarian, Central Austro-Bavarian, Southern Austro-Bavarian, Swabian, East Franconian, High Alemannic German,Highest Alemannic German, Alsatian and Low Alemannic German. They are spoken in parts of the Alsace, southern Germany, Liechtenstein, Austria, and the German-speaking parts of Switzerland and Italy.

Wymysorys is a High German dialect of Poland native to Wilamowice, and Sathmarisch and Siebenbürgisch are High German dialects of Romania. The High German varieties spoken by Ashkenazi Jews (mostly in the former Russian Empire) have several unique features, and are usually considered as a separate language,Yiddish. It is the only Germanic language that does not use the Latin script as the basis of its standard alphabet.

Varieties of standard German

In German linguistics, German dialects are distinguished from varieties of standard German.

  • The German dialects are the traditional local varieties. They are traditionally traced back to the different German tribes.Many of them are hardly understandable to someone who knows only standard German, since they often differ from standard German in lexicon, phonology and syntax. If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages (for instance in the Ethnologue). However, such a point of view is unusual in German linguistics.
  • The varieties of standard German refer to the different local varieties of the pluricentric standard German. They only differ slightly in lexicon and phonology. In certain regions, they have replaced the traditional German dialects, especially in Northern Germany.

Grammar

Main article: German grammar

German is an inflected language with three grammatical genders; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root.

Noun inflection

Declension of the German definite articles, der, die and das("the").

German nouns inflect by case, gender, and number:

  • four cases: nominative, genitive, dative, and accusative.
  • three genders: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Word endings sometimes reveal grammatical gender: for instance, nouns ending in ...ung (-ing), ...schaft (-ship), ...keit or ...heit (-hood, -ness) are feminine, while nouns ending in ...chen or ...lein (diminutive forms) are neuter and nouns ending in...ismus (-ism) are masculine. Others are more variable, sometimes depending on the region in which the language is spoken; and some endings are not restricted to one gender, e.g. ...er (-er), e.g.Feier (feminine), celebration, party, Arbeiter (masculine), labourer, and Gewitter (neuter), thunderstorm.
  • two numbers: singular and plural

This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin, Ancient Greek, and Sanskrit, and also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English, modern Icelandic and Russian. The three genders have collapsed in the plural, which now behaves, grammatically, somewhat as a fourth gender. With four cases and three genders plus plural there are 16 permutations of case and gender/number, but there are only six forms of the definite article, which together cover all 16 permutations. In nouns, inflection for case is required in the singular for strong masculine and neuter nouns, in the genitive, and sometimes in the dative. Both of these cases are losing ground to substitutes in informal speech. The dative noun ending is considered somewhat old-fashioned in many contexts and is often dropped, but it is still used in proverbs and the like, in formal speech, and in written language. Weak masculine nouns share a common case ending for genitive, dative and accusative in the singular. Feminine nouns are not declined in the singular. The plural does have an inflection for the dative. In total, seven inflectional endings (not counting plural markers) exist in German: -s, -es, -n, -ns, -en, -ens, -e.

In German orthography, nouns and most words with the syntactical function of nouns are capitalised, to make it easier for readers to determine the function of a word within a sentence (Am Freitag ging ich einkaufen.—"On Friday I went shopping."; Eines Tages kreuzte er endlich auf.—"One day he finally showed up.") This convention is almost unique to German today (shared perhaps only by the closely related Luxemburgish language and several insular dialects of the North Frisian language), although it was historically common in other languages such as Danish (which abolished the capitalization of nouns in 1948) and English.

Like most Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds where the first noun modifies the category given by the second, for example: Hundehütte ("dog hut"; specifically: "dog kennel"). Unlike English, where newer compounds or combinations of longer nouns are often written in "open" with separating spaces, German (like some other Germanic languages) nearly always uses the "closed" form without spaces, for example: Baumhaus ("tree house"). German allows arbitrarily long compounds, as English does to some extent. (See also English compounds.) In German these are quite common. The longest German word verified to be actually in (albeit very limited) use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz, which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duty assignment law" [from Rind (cattle), Fleisch (meat), Etikettierung(s) (labelling), Überwachung(s) (supervision), Aufgaben (duties), Übertragung(s) (assignment), Gesetz (law)]. However, examples like this are perceived by native speakers as excessively bureaucratic, stylistically awkward, and even satiric.


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